The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice

Objective Investigations of Controversial and Unorthodox Claims in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Social Work


A Reply to Black (2005) and Steele (2005)

E. Glenn Schellenberg - University of Toronto

Author Note:
The research in the original article was funded by the International Foundation for Music Research. Preparation of the present report was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Glenn Schellenberg, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5L 1C6; e-mail:

Schellenberg (2004) reported results from a study that measured IQ scores of a large sample of 6-year-olds before and after they were assigned at random to one of four groups. Two groups received music lessons (keyboard or voice) for a year. Two control groups received drama lessons or no lessons. Compared with the control groups, the music groups had larger increases in IQ. Steele (2005) criticizes the decision to collapse the two music groups in the sta-tistical analyses, whereas Black (2005) criticizes collapsing the two control groups. In both cases, the decision to collapse the groups was motivated conceptually as well as empirically. The results complement established findings that attending school raises IQ. Out-of-school activities appear to exaggerate this effect depending on the degree to which they resemble school.

You can read the full text of this article in
The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, vol. 4, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 2005-06).
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